Industry and Retail Super
State governments are ultimately competitors in their economic policies when people, products and capital are free to move across state borders. Nowhere is this competition more apparent than in the United States where individual states compete to promote economic growth by attracting industry with tax holidays, outright grants, subsidized financing and other means. Yet, the arguably greater influence of state fiscal policy on investment decisions has largely been ignored. This book redresses that deficiency by providing a collection of chapters which discuss the theoretical and practical linkage between investment strategy and state economic policy. Specifically, it uses changes in relative state burdens as a measure of state fiscal policy and shows that by altering the incentives to work, save and invest, changes in a state's tax burden relative to other states influence decisions on whether, how much and where to invest. The book is divided into three parts. The first section provides the theoretical framework for the book and discusses application of the basic model to explain the persistent differences in observed real income across states; the level of economic activity; and business starts and failures. The second section discusses, among other things, the implications of changes in state economic policy for investments in real estate; common stocks of small capitalization firms; and state general obligation bonds. The third section of the book, which examines the political dimensions of state economic policy, begins with a discussion of the effect of state economic policy on relative population shifts and reapportionment and ends with a proposal for a flat tax.
Closed-End Investment Companies (CEICs) were the dominant form of investment companies in the United States during the early part of this century, but interest in them declined after the 1929 stock market crash. Since 1985, however, there has been a significant revival of interest in CEICs.
From a historical point of view, the main activity of investment banks is what today we call security underwriting. Investment banks buy securities, such as bonds and stocks, from an issuer and then sell them to the ?nal investors. In the eighteenth century, the main securities were bonds issued by governments. The way these bonds were priced and placed is extraordinarily similar to the system that inve- ment banks still use nowadays. When a government wanted to issue new bonds, it negotiated with a few prominent "middlemen" (today we would call them investment bankers). The middlemen agreed to take a fraction of the bonds: they accepted to do so only after having canvassed a list of people they could rely upon. The people on the list were the ?nal investors. The middlemen negotiated with the government even after the issuance. Indeed, in those days governments often changed unilaterally the bond conditions and being on the list of an important middleman could make the difference. On the other hand, middlemen with larger lists were considered to be in a better bargaining position. This game was repeated over time, and hence, reputation mattered. For the middlemen, being trusted by both the investors on the list and by the issuing governments was crucial.
No man can learn all there is to know about forecasting the trend of stocks in 3, 5, 10, or 20 years but if he is a deep student and hard worker, he learns more and knowledge comes easier after years of experience. I knew more about determining the trend of stocks in 1923 than I did in 1911. Seven more years of experience gave me more knowledge and enabled me to write THE WALL STREET STOCK SELECTOR in 1939 and give my readers the benefit of my increased knowledge. Now, after five more years have elapsed my experience and practical test of new rules have enabled me to learn more of value since 1930. The 1929-1932 panic and what has followed since, gave me valuable experience and I have gained more knowledge about detecting the right stocks to buy and sell. W.D. Gann
I. A New Deal in Wall Street
II. Foundation for Successful Trading
III. History Repeats
IV. Individual Stocks vs. Averages
V. New Rules to Detect Trend of Stocks
VI. Volume of Sales
VII. A Practical Trading Method
VIII. Future Trend of Stocks
The Financing of Foreign Direct Investment examines the communication gap between business leaders and international economists when it comes to financing the overseas operations of domestic firms. Gilman argues that economists and business people have been speaking 'two different languages' when it comes to these issues, and he explores the different positions adopted by economists and business people to provide a plausible explanation of the determinants of capital flows financing foreign direct investment that incorporates the main elements of both approaches.
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