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From a historical point of view, the main activity of investment banks is what today we call security underwriting. Investment banks buy securities, such as bonds and stocks, from an issuer and then sell them to the ?nal investors. In the eighteenth century, the main securities were bonds issued by governments. The way these bonds were priced and placed is extraordinarily similar to the system that inve- ment banks still use nowadays. When a government wanted to issue new bonds, it negotiated with a few prominent "middlemen" (today we would call them investment bankers). The middlemen agreed to take a fraction of the bonds: they accepted to do so only after having canvassed a list of people they could rely upon. The people on the list were the ?nal investors. The middlemen negotiated with the government even after the issuance. Indeed, in those days governments often changed unilaterally the bond conditions and being on the list of an important middleman could make the difference. On the other hand, middlemen with larger lists were considered to be in a better bargaining position. This game was repeated over time, and hence, reputation mattered. For the middlemen, being trusted by both the investors on the list and by the issuing governments was crucial.
<b>Practical, expert coverage of investment pricing methods for financial professionals</b> <p> This book on investment pricing methods offers accounting and financial practitioners and academics a solid understanding of the techniques and methods investment analysts use to price common financial investment instruments, such as commercial mortgages, private placement-bonds, mortgage-backed securities, private and public equities, derivatives, and joint ventures. Clarification of important terminology and an overview of fundamental concepts are provided for less experienced professionals, while in-depth and up-to-date discussion of technical matters offers experienced professionals expert dissection of more complex material. This authoritative and reliable guide features: <ul> <li>PowerPoint(TM) presentation for teaching purposes available online at www.wiley.com/go/investmentpricing <li>In-depth and up-to-date pricing models <li>Verbal and formula explanations for all mathematical equations <li>Tips on reviewing investment prices for accuracy or flaws <li>Investment type characteristics such as contractual provisions, cash flows, and risks for applying Statement 133 hedge effectiveness guidelines <li>Basic building blocks of investment pricing methodologies including present value methodologies used for pricing and evaluating common investment types <li>Coverage of complex issues including term structure of interest rates, determinants of bond yields and stock risk premiums, estimation of free cash flows for valuing a business entity, and more </ul>
State governments are ultimately competitors in their economic policies when people, products and capital are free to move across state borders. Nowhere is this competition more apparent than in the United States where individual states compete to promote economic growth by attracting industry with tax holidays, outright grants, subsidized financing and other means. Yet, the arguably greater influence of state fiscal policy on investment decisions has largely been ignored. This book redresses that deficiency by providing a collection of chapters which discuss the theoretical and practical linkage between investment strategy and state economic policy. Specifically, it uses changes in relative state burdens as a measure of state fiscal policy and shows that by altering the incentives to work, save and invest, changes in a state's tax burden relative to other states influence decisions on whether, how much and where to invest. The book is divided into three parts. The first section provides the theoretical framework for the book and discusses application of the basic model to explain the persistent differences in observed real income across states; the level of economic activity; and business starts and failures. The second section discusses, among other things, the implications of changes in state economic policy for investments in real estate; common stocks of small capitalization firms; and state general obligation bonds. The third section of the book, which examines the political dimensions of state economic policy, begins with a discussion of the effect of state economic policy on relative population shifts and reapportionment and ends with a proposal for a flat tax.
A young man's friend has gone missing. Holmes and Watson go with him to Birmingham to help look for him. What they find is horrifying. Two more bodies of young men turn up in London. All of the victims are tied to Cambridge University. All are also tied to the financial sector of the City and to one of the greatest fraud ever visited upon the citizens of England. The story is based on the true story of James Whitaker Wright and is inspired by the original Sherlock Holmes story, The Stock Broker's Clerk. Any resemblance of the villain to a certain presidential candidate is entirely coincidental.
The purpose of this book is to present the principles of alternative investments in management. The individual chapters provide a detailed analysis of various classes of alternative investments on the financial market. Despite many different definitions of alternative investments, it can be assumed that a classical approach to alternative investments includes hedge funds, fund of funds (FOF), managed accounts, structured products and private equity/venture capital. Alternative investment in keeping with this broad definition is the subject of consideration here. The theoretical part of each chapter is meant to collect, systematize and deepen readers' understanding of a given investment category, while the practical part of each focuses on an analysis of the current state of development of alternative investments on the global market and outlines the prospects of future market development. This book will be a valuable tool for scholars, practitioners and policy-makers alike.
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