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The central emphasis in the book is on the transaction and the constraints that its architecture imposes on a discussion of monetary theory and policy. Because of their comprehensiveness and discipline the flow-of-funds accounts are the ideal vehicle for theorizing about real and financial interaction. Such int- action can best be understood when real and financial transac- tions are expressed in a common flow dimension. Each decision by economic agents is seen as two-ended in terms of markets: one market supplies the source of funds and the second market absorbs these funds. A matrix of interdependent markets is featured throughout the theoretical discussion. Credit markets, and the bank credit market in particular, become the source of disturbance in the theoretical model, but the necessary involve- ment of the money market is also stressed. Theories of finan- cial instability and crisis now receiving considerable attention are part of the more general theory of the flow of funds. The rationale for the monetary authority to target credit rather than the monetary aggregates emerges from the analytical discus- sion. A flow-constrained analysis clarifies interest-rate deter- mination, provides a helpful format for discussing equilibrium and disequilibrium, integrates credit markets with the familiar IS-LM framework, and identifies a class of missing equations in macro-monetary theory. The prototype of the missing equations is an equation explaining monetary dissaving in terms of a series of arguments only one of which will be the stock of real balances or real wealth.
One of the main objectives of nature conservation in Europe is to protect valuable cultural landscapes characterized by a mixture of open habitats and hedges, trees and patchy woodland (semi-open landscapes).The development of these landscapes during the past decades has been characterized by an ongoing intensification of land use on the one hand, and an increasing number of former meadows and pastures becoming fallow as a result of changing economic conditions on the other hand. Since species adapted to open and semi-open landscapes contribute to biodiversity in Europe in a major way, this development is of great concern to nature conservation. In several countries largescale, nature-adapted pastoral systems have been recognized as one solution to this problem. These systems could offer an alternative to industrial livestock raising and keep a high biodiversity on the landscape level. Against the background of livestock diseases such as BSE and Foot and Mouth Disease and the efforts to reform the Common Agricultural Policy in the EU by changing the criteria for agricultural subsidies, these concepts gain particular significance.They could also represent an alternative to the established, costly habitat management tools.
Toxicologic pathology integrates toxicology and the disciplines within it (such as biochemistry, pharmacodynamics and risk assessment) to pathology and its related disciplines (such as physiology, microbiology, immunology, and molecular biology).
- 25% brand new information, fully revised throughout
- New chapters: Veterinary Diagnostic Toxicologic Pathology; Clinical Pathology; Nomenclature: Terminology for Morphologic Alterations; Techniques in Toxicologic Pathology
- New color photomicrographs detailing specific toxicant-induced diseases in animals
- Mechanistic information integrated from both toxicology and pathology discussing basic mechanisms of toxic injury and morphologic expression at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue levels
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